ETEC 501 (Assignment #10)

Given what you have learned in this course this quarter;

  • What is the most important take away from this course
    • The most important take away from this course, as mentioned by our professor, is that instructional designers wear many hats, but that one of the most important roles they play is that of a listener. This is because as instructional designers we have clients and faculty that we must work with, they are whom need us to create a course that will meet their ultimate objective. In addition to being a great listener, an instructional designer must have great communication skills. We must be able to explain to our clients what the process is like and explain why certain decisions will be best for their course. This course made me understand with greater detail exactly what an instructional designer does and the responsibilities they hold.
  • What was your experience like in taking a fully online course
    • My experience in taking a fully online course was positive, I can’t think of anything that I would change. I feel like the instructor created a course that has the right amount of work due each week, with engaging material that supported the weekly readings and topic being covered. Everything was well organized and instructions were clear every week, including weekly reminders. The instructor was also quick in answering my emails when needed, overall Professor Bedan Kamau provided a great online course.


Given your role as educators and/or instructional designer, how do you see yourself overcoming some of the challenges discussed in this week’s materials? (Be specific) give at least 2 concrete examples. List the a couple of challenges you forsee, and how you would go about overcoming them.

For example laptop/ipad initiatives, BYOD incitiatives, WI-FI Connectivity (in some cases limited acess at schools), locked down systems requiring “administrative IT permissions” I want you to think broadly. Think about the workforce and the different generations in the workforce today including, and how their technology readiness, funding, people in leadership positions and their acceptance to adopting technology etc. This is where you as a designer get to think about potential issues/barriers and challenges that may be thrust your way, and for you to come up with innovative ways to address them.

As an instructional designer training faculty members, one challenge that may arise is that the level of experience of faculty members vary, therefore, instructional designers face the difficult task of teaching individuals with different strengths and weaknesses. For example, some faculty members might have a high level of technology proficiency making easier for instructional designers to train, while other faculty members may struggle with simple tasks such as using Google Docs. As a result, instructional designers formulate a plan to meet deadlines but most importantly the learning needs of the faculty members, to better prepare them for the integration of new technology. One way to do so, is by applying important teaching principles, learning theories, ARCS model, COI framework and instructional design models.

One challenge that I foresee as an educator is the integration of technology by formulating lesson plans where technology is used effective to maximize the output of students. Creating a lesson plan is a difficult task that only becomes more difficult when you add new technology. Educators struggle in the area of integration due to their level of comfort with new technology. We cannot expect to simply present educators with a new teaching tool and expect them to implement the teaching tool effectively. I believe that schools and school districts should work together to provide free training workshops that teachers must attend to practice and gain experience with new technology and teaching methods.


ETEC 501 (Assignment #8)

Complete the following and be sure to cite your sources.

  1. Prepare a brief summary explaining your understanding of ADA 508, Section 508, IDEA, and  Universal Design for Learning .
    • ADA 
      • ADA is the Americans with Disabilities Act, which protects individuals with disabilities from being discriminated in both private and public places, such as, workplace, transportation, schools, etc..
    • ADA Section 508
      • ADA section 508 requires Federal departments and agencies to make their electronic and information technology accessible for individuals with disabilities.
    • IDEA
      • IDEA is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, that requires by federal law, that schools provide learning material accessibility to students with disabilities. In order to access services under IDEA, the student will have to go through an evaluation process to determine whether or not he/she is eligible to receive the free appropriate public education.
    • Universal Design for Learning
      • Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is an approach used to try to remove barriers that are making students struggle when it comes to learning. To maximize the learning of all students, UDL provides and encourages different types of representations, action and expressions and engagement.
  2. Share at least two examples highlighting the benefits and two examples highlighting the challenges when it comes to ADA, Section 508, IDEA and Universal Design.
    • Benefits
      • Example 1: 
        • Universal Design for Learning is beneficial for students in that it provides them with different ways to become engaged, by allowing students to learn new material and be tested in innovative ways.
      • Example 2: 
        • IDEA gives students with disabilities important rights in regards to their education and parents some peace of mind knowing the needs of their child is being met. For example, a child struggling with speech or language impairment can be helped by the school by providing extra assistance in the development of the students speech with speech therapy or exercises.
    • Challenges
      • Example 1:
        • Although IDEA protects students with disabilities, accessing the services is a process and does not always guarantee that your child will qualify. So there is always the possibility that a child who needs the help does not receive it.
      • Example 2:
        • Some of the challenges that arise with ADA are that not many individuals are aware of the existence of this law and due to that usually people do not make the accommodations required for people with disabilities.
  3. What have you learned this week that you were not aware of?
    • I was not aware of IDEA and UDL so that was definitely something new that I learned this week. What took me by surprise was how extensive ADA was, in order to ensure that people with disabilities are protected in all sectors of society. It is definitely important to take into consideration the rights and needs of those with disabilities, since they have every right to a good education as well.

ETEC 501 (Assignment #7)

Given your understanding of Copyright, Fair Use and Creative Commons.

  • Prepare a brief summary explaining the differences Copyright, Fair Use,and Creative Commons. Give at least 1 example for each.
    • Copyright
      • Copyright protects the original creative work of individuals
      • Example: Copyright laws protect original work, such as, music, copyright infringement can occurs if the instrumental track is used by another artist without permission from the original creator.
    • Fair Use
      • Fair use is having access and properly utilizing online materials freely, all while taking into consideration the purpose and character of the use, nature of copyrighted work, how much of the work is being used and the effect of the use upon the potential market. This rule is a bit more flexible than Copyright laws.
      • Example: An educator can use a video in an online course as long as it is used for educational purposes and nonprofitable.
    • Creative Commons
      • With a creative commons license the owner of the licensed work is granting permission to others to use their work without having to go through the process of asking permission, the opposite of copyright.
      • Example: Creative commons can come in handy when wanting to use a picture in a presentation or blog post, to avoid any trouble it is best to locate whether or not if is licensed by creative commons.
  • Share at least two examples highlighting the benefits and two examples highlighting the challenges when it comes to incorporating Copyright,Fair Use and Creative Commons in teaching.
    • Benefits
      • Example 1: Fair use and creative commons, have made it easier for teachers to have access to creative material and be able to implement new and creative ways to teach students, by using videos, music, etc., as long as it is not for profit and for educational purposes.
      • Example 2: Teachers are always looking for innovative ways to teach a course and create different things to engage students, the benefits that copyright provides is that their original ideas are protected and no one else can pass it as their own.
    • Challenges
      • Example 1: The more educators share amongst one another the more informed and prepared they become, sometimes copyright can hinder the process of sharing ideas.
      • Example 2: One of the challenges when incorporating fair use, is that there is the misconceptions that everything online is fair game which can lead to trouble.
  • What have you learned this week about Copyright, Fair Use, and Creative Commons that you were not aware of prior to taking this class?
    • Laws pertaining to copyright, fair use and creative commons can be overwhelming. We briefly covered the basics of them this week and there is so much more that we need to learn. Copyright is something I was familiar with, at least for me, fair use and creative commons were new concepts that I had not heard of before. I can see how understanding these concepts are important especially for educators. With the existence of the internet, it seems like everything is fair game and that we will never get caught but that is not true. It is better for us and everyone to truly understand fair use and learn how to respectfully use others work. Luckily, with creative commons we are able to easily distinguish work that is safe to use with permission and create work that will not be considered infringement.

ETEC 501 (Assignment #6)

Part I

Develop 1 self-contained short course activity that can be used in a blended course.

  • Create a sample blended learning activity which should include at least two learning objectives.
    • The learning objectives will be based off of what the focus for the module will be in the particular week. Since it is a short course activity for a CSET Mathematics Prep Course, the focus will vary from Algebra, Geometry, Calculus, etc.. 
  • Share the name of the Web 2.0 tool(s) used (see list of tools provided below if you don’t have one identified) e.g. Activity created using Kahoots.
    • Short course activity created using Scratchwork.
  • Describe the features of the Web 2.0 tool you chose, and how you incorporated them into the e-learning course you developed
    • Scratchwork is a white board app that allows anyone who utilizes it to make annotations on a blank page, an uploaded image or a scanned document. Students can collaborate and communicate through chat or video call, to discuss, draw, take notes, edit and share material with others at the same time. The Web 2.0 tool I chose was simply incorporated by requiring certain practice problems to be completed in groups through this tool. Students will have to collaborate with one another to find a solution for the CSET Mathematics problem presented to them. 
  • Share a sample of the blended course activity/material you developed
Part II

While considering the following 4 things below, describe how the sample blended learning activity you created addressed the following:

  1. Who is the Audience?
    • The audience for this activity are individuals seeking to obtain their single-subject teaching credential. My sample blended learning activity will include practice problems that tend to be more difficult, practicing different problems is key in preparing for any exam. Therefore, this activity will be beneficial. Scratchwork allows participants to actively work together and share ideas outside of the classroom at their own pace and time, which is always helpful for adults. 
  2. What are the learning objectives?
    • Learners will effectively collaborate to solve practice problems.
    • Learners will show all work that was done to solve problem.
    • Learners will summarize what they have learned.
  3. What assignments will you include?
    • As previously mentioned, assignments will include various types of practice problems, where students will be required to work together in groups of three. Everyone has their own way of understanding concepts and problem solving, this activity will give them the opportunity to freely share ideas and tips with each other. 
  4. How will you evaluate achievement of learning outcomes?
    • Achievement of learning outcomes will be evaluated by following the scoring scale for the CSET. Students will each submit their own copy of the problem they solved, including every step they completed to arrive to a solution/showing all work, and a summary of what was learned will also be required.
  5. Teaching, Social and Cognitive presences.
    • Teaching
      • One way teaching presence is included in the activity is that the link must be shared with the instructor. The instructor will join the group at scheduled times to guide the discussion and problem solving process and to answer any questions that the students have.
    • Social
      • This activity encourages learners to work together and share ideas through a group chat, video call, and group editing features provided by the tool. The activity allows students to have an open discussion about possible solutions to the problem and this helps them create connections and feel a sense of community even when it isn’t taking place face-to-face.
    • Cognitive
      • By working in groups in this activity, students can help each other arrive to a solution and understand important concepts. In addition, in the end each student from the group will summarize what they learned from one another or what helped them solve the problem.

ETEC 501 (Assignment #5)

1). Share your experiences: when have you’ve been highly motivated in your classes? These can be experiences from any delivery format face to face, hybrid, or online. What motivated you to be involved? Be specific.
From what I can remember from my learning experiences, the common factors that highly motivated me in my classes were activities that allowed me to apply the concepts I learned and having control of my learning.

For instance, I vividly remember in my High School Geometry class being required to work with two other classmates and having to choose an important concept to teach to the rest of the class. This project replaced our final exam for the semester and tested whether we truly understood the concepts enough to even teach it to our classmates. In this case, it was motivating to be able to collaborate with others, apply our knowledge, and to try to become the teacher for a day. This activity strayed away from the traditional note and test taking strategy, and it is what made me motivated to learn.

Taking a math course in college was a whole different story. Everything was at a faster pace and asking questions during lecture for me was nerve-racking, which resulted in me sitting in lecture confused and having to teach myself on my own time. One professor decided to apply the flipped classroom method, where instructional videos were to be watched before lecture and during class time we had the opportunity to ask questions and collaborate with one another by working on homework problems. This was motivating for me, because I had control over the pace of my learning. I could rewatch the videos as many times needed and prepare questions for the next day.

2). Explain specifically what kinds of activities you can develop for an online course. Incorporate effective strategies for motivation and share this with your classmates (suggest at least two different activities).

Activities for an online course should focus on motivating students even more, especially since it is up to the learner to want to go through the course. One activity that I believe will motivate students, by creating a sense of community, is requiring video conference meetings once a week to discuss the important topics of the week, share ideas and answer any questions or concerns. Another activity would be similar to one I experienced as a high school student that I previously mentioned, which is to allow the learner to take the roll of the instructor and teach an important concept to others. Again this reinforces the learning of the students and can motivate those who find the shift in roles exciting.

3). What did you learn in the discussion this week that changed your viewpoint and/or is useful ?

What stood out to me the most was the ARCS model, focuses on motivating students by focusing on attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction. I found this the most useful piece of information from this week’s readings, because lack of motivation is an obstacle that can sometimes be overlooked. This is an issue that is more prominent now with technology because students need to be aroused in creative ways. I see myself applying the approach in my future career as a teacher.

ETEC 501 (Assignment #4)

With social, teaching and cognitive presence in mind, assume the role of an e-learning instructor. How would you apply the COI framework when designing an online course? Be specific and explain how you would approach the course design and delivery, consider the list below : (remember to cite your work using APA)

  • Course Title: CBEST Prep Course
  • Content/Topics:
    • Reading
    • Mathematics
    • Writing
  • Target Audience: Individuals who want to obtain a teaching credential
  • Delivery Format: Blended

As we have been discussing recently, the COI framework emphasizes the importance of creating an interactive learning community that is heavily supported by the instructor in order to facilitate learning. One instructional strategy that I feel will allow me to create such a learning environment is the flipped classroom method. Applying the flipped classroom method in a blended online course will allow the instructor and students to collaborate both online and face-to-face. I will apply the COI framework when designing an online course as follows:

Social Presence: To create a social presence in my blended learning course, I plan to create a course website where a discussion section for both activities and questions will be available for students to have purposeful communication and where the instructor can provide immediate feedback as well. Since this will be a blended course students will be able to establish relationships even further with other learners and the instructor when they meet face-to-face once a week.

Teaching Presence: As mentioned before, this will be a blended course, which will have activities completed online and face-to-face. Teaching presence is the main reason why I believed that a blended delivery format will be the most beneficial, since it is easier to communicate face-to-face, and not all questions or problems can be solved through online communication. Activities completed online will be given feedback online, in addition, students who have questions in regards to the activities and in classroom work will have the opportunity to work with one another and have direct communication with the instructor for an even more immediate feedback.

Cognitive Presence: In cognitive presence there exist four stages, trigger event, exploration, integration, and resolution. The triggering event will be the diagnostic test, the exploration stage will have instructional videos, integration will take place in the weekly activities and class work, lastly in the resolution stage student will take practice tests. Preparation for a test involves a lot of practice so the four stages will be applied repeatedly throughout this preparation course.

Garrison, D. R. (2017). E-learning in the 21st century: A community of inquiry framework for research and practice. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group.